ReQL functions

Functions may be used to enhance your ReQL queries – for example up-sell or cross-sell can be achieved easily by functions.

There are various functions like math functions (rounding, computing square root ...), string functions (converting case), function for getting size of set or string, getting current timestamp, functions for conversions between types (for example conversion between date in a text representation and timestamp) or even lambda functions. If you are missing some function that you would like to use, please let us know.

ReQL function can take arguments and returns a single value. Arguments are placed between parentheses and are separated by commas – for example computing base 2 logarithm of 8 looks like this: log(8,2). If the function takes no arguments the parentheses may be omitted (for e.g. now). If the function is given wrong number of arguments, or the arguments have unsupported type, an error is produced. If any of the arguments is null, then result is also a null value.

Quick overview

Context item function    
Name of the function Description Example
context_item Retrieves property value of the item, that is currently viewed by the user context_item["price"]
context_user Retrieves property value of the user, that is about to obtain the recommendations context_user["country"]

   
Type conversion functions    
Name of the function Description Example
boolean Converts the argument to boolean boolean("") == False
number Converts the argument to number number("456") == 456
string Converts the argument to string string(123) == "123"
timestamp Converts the argument to timestamp timestamp("2015-06-25T11:08:44Z") == timestamp(1435230524)

   
Math functions    
Name of the function Description Example
max Returns the maximum of n arguments max(147,42,81.9) == 147
min Returns the minimum of n arguments min(147,42,81.9) == 42
round Returns closest integer round(4.5) == 5
floor Returns largest preceding integer floor(4.3) == 4
ceil Returns smallest following integer ceil(4.3) == 5
abs Returns non-negative value of the argument without regard to its sign abs(-4.3) == 4.3
sqrt Returns the square root of the argument sqrt(4) == 2
pow Returns \({first\_argument}^{second\_argument}\) pow(10,3) == 1000
log Returns the logarithm of the argument log(1000) == 3

   
String functions    
Name of the function Description Example
upper Converts all letters to the capital letters upper("AbCdefG") == "ABCDEFG"
lower Converts all letters to the small letters lower("AbCdefG") == "abcdefg

   
Other functions    
Name of the function Description Example
earth_distance Returns the orthodromic distance between two points (given as their latitude and longitude in degrees) in meters earth_distance(50.075538,14.437800,52.520007,13.404954) < 282000
now Returns current timestamp now() > timestamp("2015-06-24T17:35:50Z")
num_item_purchases Returns the number of purchases of an item num_item_purchases('itemId') < 10
random Returns a random number between 0 and 1 1>=random()>=0
size Returns the length of a string or number of objects in a set size("Recombee") == 8

   
Lambda functions    
Name of the function Description Example
map Applies the lambda expression to every member of a set map(lambda 'x': 2*'x', {1, 2, 3}) == {2, 4, 6}
select Returns only those values of input set for which the lambda expression returns true select(lambda 'x': 'x' > 5, {10, 2, 13, 1}) == {10, 13}

Context functions

Context item function    
Name of the function Description Example
context_item Retrieves property value of the item, that is currently viewed by the user context_item["price"]
context_user Retrieves property value of the user, that is about to obtain the recommendations context_user["country"]

Context item function

Context item function is used in Item based recommendation for retrieving property values of the item, that is currently viewed by the user.

Definition

context_item[property_name]
Key Type Meaning
property_name string Name of property to be retrieved. If property of this name does not exist, an error is produced.

(Note that Context item function is a bit special function – it takes no arguments and returns a map name of property -> value representing the context item. property_name placed in square brackets is the key to this map.)

Examples

Consider following sample items:

name: string price: number category: string
“television-42” 369 “television”
“television-49” 449 “television”
“remote-control-13” 25 “remote-control”
Example 1

Suppose that the user is currently viewing television-42. Then the following expression returns 369, because that is the price of the context item.

context_item["price"]
Example 2: up-sell

Suppose that the user is currently viewing television-42. You can recommend him products from the same category with higher price. The filter would look like this:

'price' > context_item["price"] and 'category' == context_item["category"]

Considering the sample items above, only television-49 will pass the filter.

If you don’t want to be so restrictive about the cheaper products, you shall use booster instead of filter and boost the products with higher price. The booster could look like this:

if 'category' != context_item["category"] 0.1 else if  'price' > context_item["price"] 1 else 0.5
Example 3: cross-sell

Suppose that the user is currently viewing television-42. You may want to suggest him some additional product from a different category. The filter is very simple:

'category' != context_item["category"]

remote-control-13 will pass the filter. Of course, in real life situation you may have to make the query a bit more complicated, for example to ensure the compatibility between the TV and the remote control.

Context user function

Context user function is used for retrieving property values of the user that the recommendations are for. It can be used in User based recommendation or in Item based recommendation, in case that targetUserId is specified.

Definition

context_user[property_name]
Key Type Meaning
property_name string Name of property to be retrieved. If property of this name does not exist, an error is produced.

(Note that Context user function is a bit special function – it takes no arguments and returns a map name of property -> value representing the context user. property_name placed in square brackets is the key to this map.)

Example

Consider following sample users, which have specified languages they understand:

userId: string languages: set
“user-27” [“EN”]
“user-29” [“EN”, “FR”]

And sample items, which are some movies:

itemId: string language: string
“Pulp Fiction” “EN”
“Le fabuleux destin d Amelie Poulain” “FR”
“Fight Club” “EN”
“Kolja” “CS”

Suppose that I want to recommend movies to users, but only such movies, that the users can understand them. I can use following filter:

'language' in context_user["languages"]

For user-27 (which can speak only english) Pulp Fiction or Fight Club can be recommended.

For user-29 (which can speak english and french) Pulp Fiction, Fight Club or Le fabuleux destin d Amelie Poulain can be recommended.

Type conversion functions

Name of the function Description Example
boolean Converts the argument to boolean boolean("") == False
number Converts the argument to number number("456") == 456
string Converts the argument to string string(123) == "123"
timestamp Converts the argument to timestamp timestamp("2015-06-25T11:08:44Z") == timestamp(1435230524)

Boolean conversion function

Boolean conversion function is used for getting the truth value of any expression.

Definition

boolean(value_to_be_converted)
Argument Type Meaning
value_to_be_converted any type Value to be converted into a boolean

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

boolean("Recombee") == true

boolean("") == False

boolean(42) == true

boolean(0) == False

boolean({""}) == true

boolean({}) == False

Number conversion function

Number conversion function is used for converting strings, booleans and timestamps into numbers.

Definition

number(value_to_be_converted)
Argument Type Meaning
value_to_be_converted string boolean timestamp number Value to be converted into a number

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

number("456") == 456

number("1E4") == 10000

number(true) == 1

number("Recombee") == null #String "Recombee" cannot be converted into a number

String conversion function

String conversion function is used for converting numbers, booleans, sets and timestamps into their textual representations.

Definition

string(value_to_be_converted [, date_time_format (only if value_to_be_converted is a timestamp)])
Argument Type Meaning
value_to_be_converted string boolean timestamp set number Value to be converted into a string
date_time_format string (Optional and only if value_to_be_converted is a timestamp) String specifying the format of textual representation of the timestamp after conversion. See supported date and time format specifiers. If date_time_format is not specified, ISO 8601 format is used.

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

string(123) == "123"

string(true) == "true"

string('time') == "2015-06-25T11:08:44Z" # Suppose that 'time' is a timestamp with value 1435230524. No format string is specified, so ISO 8601 is used.

string('time', "%d.%m.%Y %H:%M:%S") == "25.06.2015 11:08:44" # Suppose that 'time' is a timestamp with value 1435230524.

Timestamp conversion function

Timestamp conversion function is used for converting numbers and strings into timestamps.

Definition

timestamp(value_to_be_converted [, date_time_format (only if value_to_be_converted is a string) ] )
Argument Type Meaning
value_to_be_converted string number timestamp Value to be converted into a string
date_time_format string (Optional and only if value_to_be_converted is a string) String specifying the format of value_to_be_converted. See supported date and time format specifiers. If date_time_format is not specified, ISO 8601 format is used.

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

timestamp("2015-06-25T11:08:44Z") == timestamp(1435230524)  # No format string is specified, so ISO 8601 is used.

timestamp("25.06.2015 11:08:44", "%d.%m.%Y %H:%M:%S") == timestamp(1435230524)

Math functions

Name of the function Description Example
max Returns the maximum of n arguments max(147,42,81.9) == 147
min Returns the minimum of n arguments min(147,42,81.9) == 42
round Returns closest integer round(4.5) == 5
floor Returns largest preceding integer floor(4.3) == 4
ceil Returns smallest following integer ceil(4.3) == 5
abs Returns non-negative value of the argument without regard to its sign abs(-4.3) == 4.3
sqrt Returns the square root of the argument sqrt(4) == 2
pow Returns \({first\_argument}^{second\_argument}\) pow(10,3) == 1000
log Returns the logarithm of the argument log(1000) == 3

Max

Returns the maximum of n arguments.

The arguments must be comparable using >.

Definition

max(val1, val2, [val3, val4 ...])
Argument Type Meaning
val1 any  
val2 any  
...    

Example

max(147,42,81.9) == 147
max("abc", "bac") == "bac"
max({5}, {}) == {5}

Min

Returns the minimum of n arguments.

The arguments must be comparable using <.

Definition

min(val1, val2, [val3, val4 ...])
Argument Type Meaning
val1 any  
val2 any  
...    

Example

min(147,42,81.9) == 42
min("abc", "bac") == "abc"
min({5}, {}) == {}

Round

Definition

round(x)
Argument Type Meaning
x number  
Return value number Integer closest to x

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

round(4.3) == 4

round(4.5) == 5

Floor

Definition

floor(x)
Argument Type Meaning
x number  
Return value number Largest integer preceding x

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

floor(4.3) == 4

floor(4.5) == 4

Ceil

Definition

ceil(x)
Argument Type Meaning
x number  
Return value number Smallest integer following x

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

ceil(4.3) == 5

ceil(4.5) == 5

Absolute value

Definition

abs(x)
Argument Type Meaning
x number  
Return value number Non-negative value of x without regard to its sign

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

abs(-4.3) == 4.3

abs(4.3) == 4.3

Square root

Definition

sqrt(x)
Argument Type Meaning
x Non-negative number  
Return value number Number \(a\), such that \(a^2 = x\)

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

sqrt(4) == 2

sqrt(-16) == null # Square root is defined only for non-negative numbers

Power function

Definition

pow(base, exponent)
Argument Type Meaning
base number  
exponent number  
Return value number Base raised to the power exponent (\({base}^{exponent}\))

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

pow(10,3) == 1000

pow(5,-2) == 0.04

pow(-2,5) == -32

Logarithm

Definition

log(x [, base])
Argument Type Meaning
x Non-negative number  
base Non-negative number Optional. Default base is decadic.
Return value number Number \(y\), such that \({base}^{y} = x\)

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

log(1000) == 3

log(16,2) == 4

log(-2) == null # Logarithm is defined only for non-negative numbers

String functions

Name of the function Description Example
upper Converts all letters to the capital letters upper("AbCdefG") == "ABCDEFG"
lower Converts all letters to the small letters lower("AbCdefG") == "abcdefg

Convert to upper case

Converts all letters to the capital letters

Definition

upper(str)
Argument Type Meaning
str string  

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

upper("AbCdefG") == "ABCDEFG"

upper("7b&*#č汉字") == "7B&*#Č汉字"

Convert to lower case

Converts all letters to small letters

Definition

lower(str)
Argument Type Meaning
str string  

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

lower("AbCdefG") == "abcdefg"

lower("7B&*#Č汉字") == "7b&*#č汉字"

Other functions

Name of the function Description Example
earth_distance Returns the orthodromic distance between two points (given as their latitude and longitude in degrees) in meters earth_distance(50.075538,14.437800,52.520007,13.404954) < 282000
now Returns current timestamp now() > timestamp("2015-06-24T17:35:50Z")
num_item_bookmarks Returns the number of bookmarks of an item num_item_bookmarks('itemId') < 10
num_item_detail_views Returns the number of detail views of an item num_item_detail_views('itemId') < 10
num_item_purchases Returns the number of purchases of an item num_item_purchases('itemId') < 10
random Returns a random number between 0 and 1 1>=random()>=0
size Returns the length of a string or number of objects in a set size("Recombee") == 8

Earth Distance

Returns the orthodromic distance in meters between two points specified by their latitude and longitude in degrees

Definition

earth_distance(lat1,lon1,lat2,lon2)
Argument Type Meaning
lat1 number Latitude of the first point in degrees
lon1 number Longitude of the first point in degrees
lat2 number Latitude of the second point in degrees
lon2 number Longitude of the second point in degrees

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

earth_distance(10,10,10,10) == 0

281000 < earth_distance(50.075538,14.437800,52.520007,13.404954) < 282000  # Distance between Prague (50.075538,14.437800) and Berlin (52.520007,13.404954)

Now

Returns current timestamp

Definition

now()

Example

The following expression results in true:

now() > timestamp("2015-06-24T17:35:50Z")

Number of bookmarks

Returns number of bookmarks of an item specified by its id.

Note

This function is not enabled by default due to its higher resource consumption. Contact administrator at support@recombee.com if you need to use it.

Definition

num_item_bookmarks(id)
Argument Type Meaning
id string Id of an item

Example

num_item_bookmarks('itemId') < 5 # Only items with less than 5 bookmarks pass the filter

Number of detail views

Returns number of detail views of an item specified by its id.

Note

This function is not enabled by default due to its higher resource consumption. Contact administrator at support@recombee.com if you need to use it.

Definition

num_item_detail_views(id)
Argument Type Meaning
id string Id of an item

Example

num_item_detail_views('itemId') < 5 # Only items with less than 5 detail views pass the filter

Number of purchases

Returns number of purchases of an item specified by its id.

You can use this function for example for recommending only items that have just few purchases and you need to sell them.

Note

This function is not enabled by default due to its higher resource consumption. Contact administrator at support@recombee.com if you need to use it.

Definition

num_item_purchases(id)
Argument Type Meaning
id string Id of an item

Example

num_item_purchases('itemId') < 5 # Only items with less than 5 purchases pass the filter

Random

Returns a random number between 0 and 1

Definition

random()

Size

Returns the length of a string or number of objects in a set

Definition

size(value)
Argument Type Meaning
value string set  

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

size("Recombee") == 8

size("") == 0

size({"abc", 4, {} } ) == 3

size({ {1,2,3} } ) == 1   # Objects in nested set are not counted

Lambda functions

ReQL Lambda functions can be used for computations on sets of values.

Lambda functions take two arguments: a lambda expression and a set.

Lambda functions evaluate the lambda expression on every element of the set. The lambda expression can be any valid ReQL expression, and therefore can contain for example item properties or functions.

Name of the function Description Example
map Applies the lambda expression to every member of a set map(lambda 'x': 2*'x', {1, 2, 3}) == {2, 4, 6}
select Returns only those values of input set for which the lambda expression returns true select(lambda 'x': 'x' > 5, {10, 2, 13, 1}) == {10, 13}

Map

Map applies the expression to every element and returns the result as set

Definition

map(lambda 'x': EXPRESSION, input_set)
Argument Type Meaning
input_set set  

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

map(lambda 'x': 2*'x', {1, 2, 3}) == {2, 4, 6}   # Multiplies every element of the input set by two

map(lambda 'x': number('x'), {"1", "2", "3"}) == {1, 2, 3}   # Converts every element from the input set to number

map(lambda 'x': 'x'*'x', {}) == {}   # Map applied on empty set is empty set

Select

Select returns only those values of input set for which the lambda expression returns true. The lambda expression have to return a boolean.

Definition

select(lambda 'x': EXPRESSION, input_set)
Argument Type Meaning
input_set set  

Examples

All the following expressions result in true:

select(lambda 'x': 'x'>5, {10, 2, 13, 8, 3, 4, 7}) == {10, 13, 8, 7}   # Selects only the values that are greater than five

select(lambda 'x': true , {1, "a", {}}) == {1, "a", {}}   #''true'' is satisfied for every element

select(lambda 'x': lower('x') == 'x', {"HELLO", "hello", "Hello", "a"}) == {"hello", "a"}   # Selects only the strings, that are lowercase

select(lambda 'x': number('x')<100 , {"125", "123", "251"}) == {}   # No element represents a number with value less then 100